With the alteration in land distribution and geological conditions, together with the contrasts in climate, vastly differing environments, which are scientifically termed habitats, evolved. Among the numerous climates, predominant is the forbidding polar regions at both ends of the world. These regions, It is an icy and ominous area that has no permanent human population and is almost devoid of animal or plant life.
Certain animals develop characteristics that help them cope better than others of their species with their environment. This natural biological process is called adaptation. Among the superior traits developed through adaptation are those that may help in obtaining food or shelter, in providing protection, and in producing and protecting offspring. The better adapted organisms tend to thrive, reproduce, and pass their heritable variations along to their progeny better than do those without the superior characteristics. This is called natural selection. It results in the evolution of more and more organisms that are better fitted to their environments.
Each living thing is adapted to its mode of life in a general way, but each is adapted especially to its own distinct recess. Wildlife have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure, function, and genetics; in their locomotion or dispersal for defense and attack; in their reproduction and development; and in other respects. Favorable adaptations may involve providing protection for survival under certain conditions of temperature, for example. An organism may create its own environment, as do warm-blooded mammals, which have the ability to adjust body heat precisely to maintain their ideal temperature despite changing weather or develop a form of protection against the low surviving odds.
The Earth is divided into seven major continents, namely Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America and South America. Each has an unique type of climate, though some may possess more than one type, or even similar to that of other continents. The huge difference in the temperatures alone is something to go by, from the lowest-ever recorded temperature, -89.2° C in Antarctica to a record high of 58° C in Aziza, in the Libyan sector of the Sahara.